Pulmonary tuberculosis :

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs, but may spread to other organs.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). You can get TB by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person. This is called primary TB.

In the United States, most people will recover from primary TB infection without further evidence of the disease. The infection may stay inactive (dormant) for years. However, in some people it can reactivate.

Most people who develop symptoms of a TB infection first became infected in the past. However, in some cases, the disease may become active within weeks after the primary infection.

The following people are at higher risk for active TB:

Elderly
Infants
People with weakened immune systems, for example due to AIDS, chemotherapy, diabetes, or certain medications

Your risk of contracting TB increases if you:

Are in frequent contact with people who have TB
Have poor nutrition
Live in crowded or unsanitary living conditions

The following factors may increase the rate of TB infection in a population:

Increase in HIV infections
Increase in number of homeless people (poor environment and nutrition)
The appearance of drug-resistant strains of TB

In the United States, there are approximately 10 cases of TB per 100,000 people. However, rates vary dramatically by area of residence and socioeconomic status.
See also: Disseminated tuberculosis

Symptoms

The primary stage of TB usually doesn't cause symptoms. When symptoms of pulmonary TB occur, they may include:

Cough (usually cough up mucus)
Coughing up blood
Excessive sweating, especially at night
Fatigue
Fever
Unintentional weight loss

Other symptoms that may occur with this disease:

Breathing difficulty
Chest pain
Wheezing

Signs and tests

The doctor or nurse will perform a physical exam. This may show:

Clubbing of the fingers or toes (in people with advanced disease)
Swollen or tender lymph nodes in the neck or other areas
Fluid around a lung (pleural effusion)
Unusual breath sounds (crackles)

Tests may include:

Biopsy of the affected tissue (rare)
Bronchoscopy
Chest CT scan
Chest x-ray
Interferon-gamma blood test such as the QFT-Gold test to test for TB infection
Sputum examination and cultures
Thoracentesis
Tuberculin skin test (also called a PPD test)

Treatment

The goal of treatment is to cure the infection with drugs that fight the TB bacteria. Treatment of active pulmonary TB will always involve a combination of many drugs (usually four drugs). All of the drugs are continued until lab tests show which medicines work best.

The most commonly used drugs include:

Isoniazid
Rifampin
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol

Other drugs that may be used to treat TB include:

Amikacin
Ethionamide
Moxifloxacin
Para-aminosalicylic acid
Streptomycin

You may need to take many different pills at different times of the day for 6 months or longer. It is very important that you take the pills the way your health care provider instructed.

When people do not take their TB medications as recommended, the infection may become much more difficult to treat. The TB bacteria may become resistant to treatment, and sometimes, the drugs no longer help treat the infection.

When there is a concern that a patient may not take all the medication as directed, a health care provider may need to watch the person take the prescribed drugs. This is called directly observed therapy. In this case, drugs may be given 2 or 3 times per week, as prescribed by a doctor.

You may need to stay at home or be admitted to a hospital for 2 - 4 weeks to avoid spreading the disease to others until you are no longer contagious. Your doctor or nurse is required by law to report your TB illness to the local health department. Your health care team will be sure that you receive the best care for your TB.


Recent Events

"Starting of DMC (Designated Microscopy Centre) at Chok Krishnanagar PHC, HAW3, Maheshtala Municipality, by GRECALTES Under RNTCP, Govt. of India. "

Globally cancer is emerging as a amjor problem both in developed as well as developing countries. This dreaded disease has been indentified to beone of the leading cause of death worldwide. Even in this 21st century human beings are treated to be pitiable by others, which cause a great psichological trauma to the patient and the family too. Cancer neurosis is worse than even cardiac neurosis among patients causing poor quality of life. It is a matter of great regret that in our country about 80% cancer cases are detected in an advanced stage only when practically the curative therapy is not at all possible. Only palliative care could be of some help. To fight with the disease the fast possible way to make people aware of various signs and symptoms and methods of prevention of cancer as well as the environment protection.
A lead and initiative was taken by government of india through the formation of national cancer control programme in the year 1975. In the year 1984-85 it was revised with emphasis on primary prevention and early detection of cancer. But even this effort also could not attain the goal upto the level of expectation and ultimately the policy has once again tracked back in 2005.
In such a scenario foccus has been established in 2010-11 with the mission of achieving success in its endeavour to increase awareness amongst the masses about cancer prevention and environmental protection.
This organisation seeks support and blessing whole heartedly from all rank and file of the people.

"Preventing GDM among Women Living
in Slum" with the following objective:


To create awareness among the under
privileged slum women at reproductive
age group about diabetes focusing on
gestational diabetes, promote healthy
life style among them and detect the
'At Risk"women for Diabetes through
BMI measurement and other risk factors.
This program has been conducting by
Greater Calcutta Leprosy Treatment &
Health Education Scheme (GRECALTES)
and supported by WDF



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To fight with the disease the fast possible way to make people aware of various signs and symptoms and methods of prevention of cancer as well as the environment protection.
A lead and initiative was taken by government of india through the formation of national cancer control programme in the year 1975. In the year 1984-85 it was revised with emphasis on primary prevention and early detection of cancer. But even this effort also could not attain the goal upto the level of expectation and ultimately the policy has once again tracked back in 2005.
In such a scenario foccus has been established in 2010-11 with the mission of achieving success in its endeavour to increase awareness amongst the masses about cancer prevention and environmental protection.
This organisation seeks support and blessing whole heartedly from all rank and file of the people.

"Intensification of activities on TB with HIV & MDRTB program."

A lead and initiative was taken by government of india through the formation of national cancer control programme in the year 1975. In the year 1984-85 it was revised with emphasis on primary prevention and early detection of cancer. But even this effort also could not attain the goal upto the level of expectation and ultimately the policy has once again tracked back in 2005.
In such a scenario foccus has been established in 2010-11 with the mission of achieving success in its endeavour to increase awareness amongst the masses about cancer prevention and environmental protection.
This organisation seeks support and blessing whole heartedly from all rank and file of the people.

Research Works

"Burden of TB, MDR TB, Leprosy and TB with HIV/AIDs."